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5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.1 Introduction

Scenario A university teacher has received feedback concerning the divergence between theory knowledge and practice in her course ‘Ethical issues in education’. She wants to develop such course where theory and practice are combined, ie. where students learn theory through practice. She wants to have some authentic cases and problems which students can solve together.

  1. What are the advantages of providing authentic case scenario in educational course and why?
  2. What kind of collaborative learning model a teacher can apply?
  3. How technology can serve students studying process and teacher’s work?


The purpose of this chapter is to answer these questions.

The subject can be looked at under the following three parts:

Part 1: Introduction. In this part the scenario is presented as well as a first analysis of the problem to highlight the core challenges. To begin to find solutions, the background on current teaching methods of ethics is viewed from different perspectives and some pedagogical methods or theories that could be applied in the course are suggested.
Part2: Proposed methods. This part provides selected pedagogical theories and the way to apply them for connect theory with practice in teaching ethics explained.
Part 3: How technology could help. In this part the way that technology can support the proposed methods is explained. Some available tools are suggested and described and their relation with the proposed methods highlighted.

(In conclusion, the results of the work are summarized and main ideas and solutions for the problem are suggested.)



 

5.1.1 Methods overview

This paragraph shows a short presentation of pedagogical theories that could be applied in the course to give at the teacher an overview and some cue. Some of the proposed methods have many points in common. For a detailed analysis of the differences between them  we suggest  this article:
http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=ijpbl

Case-based learning Cases are factually-based, complex problems written to stimulate classroom discussion and collaborative analysis. Case teaching involves the interactive, student-centered exploration of realistic and specific situations. As students consider problems from a perspective which requires analysis, they strive to resolve questions that have no single right answer. This methods has the following features:              
 

  1. typically real-world examples
  2. identify problems as they perceive it
  3. connect the meaning of the story to their own lives.
  4. bring their own background knowledge and principles.
  5. raise points and questions, and defend their positions.
  6. formulate strategies to analyze the data and generate possible solutions.
  7. may not agree, and sometimes a compromise is reached.


More informations about this method could be found at http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Case-based_learning#What_is_case-based_learning.3F

Problem-based learning In problem based learning (PBL) students use take advantage of the problem case or scenario to define their own learning objectives. PBL is not about problem solving but rather it uses appropriate problems to increase knowledge. In this process the students learn about a topic, subject or situation through the experience of problem solving. With this method the students learn domain knowledge and thinking strategies. The main objectives of this method are that the students improve, develop and achieve their intrinsic motivation, self-directed learning, flexible knowledge, effective problem solving skills and a step very important in this method about collaborative learning process is which the students learn collaboration skills and working in group in the best way. This method also can be considered like a constructivist approach to instruction, emphasizing collaborative and self-directed learning.

Project-Based Learning Project learning, (or project-based learning), is an approach to teaching in which students explore real-world problems and challenges while working in small collaborative groups. In this method real-world problems capture students' interest and provoke serious thinking.


Active learning method: Learning by teaching In general the active learning methods of instruction are focused to the responsibility of learning on learners. The method Active learning method: Learning by teaching is a strategy in which the students can teach the new content to each other. Of course in this process the students will be guided by teachers or instructors, the main concept and proposal in this method is the integration of behaviorism and cognitivism generate a coherent framework for theory and practice.

Discovery learning This method is focused to inquiry-based instruction , also is considered a  constructivist  based approach to education. This method is supported by the work of important learning theorists and psychologists. The main concepts and applications in this method are focused to take place in problem solving situations where the students can draw on their own experience and prior knowledge and is very important in this method that the students interact with their own environment and they in this part could to manipulate objects through the questions and developing and designing experiments to this purpose.

Drama pedagogy This is a common teaching method for the primary school, so maybe not really good for university students.an example of drama as a pedagogical tool in University is well explained on this page http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/11/74  "Drama as a pedagogical tool for practicing death otification-experiences from Swedish medical students".

5.1.2 Background on current teaching methods of ethics
There are several articles, papers and lectures that can be found related to the teaching methods of ethics.

Papers about ethics


  1. Issues of professional etichs in education
    This ERIC digest will address two components related to the moral and ethical preparation of teachers. First it will consider issues related to the identification and assessment of professional education, and then it will address foundations and specific models for the pre service training of teachers of character.
    http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/moral.htm
  2. Finding effective strategies for teaching ethics: a comparison trial of two interventions.
    This document explains comparison of the effects of two teaching methods (written case analyses and written case analyses with group discussion) on students' recognition and assessment of common ethical dilemmas.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14985202
  3. Ethical and moral matters in teaching and teacher education
    The author reviews a set of articles on ethical and moral matters in teaching and teacher education previously published by Teaching and Teacher Education. Comparisons are made and a summary of findings offered.
    http://www.elsevier.com/authored_subject_sections/S06/S06_342/misc/Ethical_and_moral_matters_Teaching_and_Teacher_Education.pdf
  4. Methods in Teaching Ethics to Students of Business Information Technology
    This paper presents methods successfully applied in a one-week seminar covering ethical issues in information technologies. The methods are assessed according to their impact on the achievement of the seminar's goal. Perspectives of participating students are also included in this paper.
    http://www.cclass.ch/Dokumente/EthikPaper0904.pdf

Lectures about Ethics


  1. Social and Ethical Issues in Education Technologies - Unesco Seminar Plenary Debate: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvX4lk...
  2. Ethical Issues in Business and the Lawyer's Role:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tr69RR...
  3. Laurie Zoloth: A GOOD LINE: Ethical Issues in a designed world:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oywLy6...

Litigation Attorney -- Ethical Issues in the Attorney-Client Relationship:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bREARu...

Discuss & brainstorm