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Terminology & Abbreviations

1. Self Regulated Learning (SRL)

Application of general models of regulation and self-regulation of cognition, motivation/affect, behavior, and context to issues of learning, in particular, academic learning that takes place in school or classroom contexts (Pintrich, 2000). It involves goal setting and regulating one’s efforts to reach the goal, self-monitoring  (metacognition), time management, and physical and social environment regulation (Zimmerman & Risemberg, 1997 as cited in Chen 2002).


2. Collaborative Learning (CL)

Situations where two or more people try to create a joint understanding of the problem and solve it according to their knowledge. The study outcome is measured by the improvement of problem solving performance by the group (Dillenbourg, 1999) .


3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky, 1978, p86).


4. Andragogy

Andragogy is the study of notions that caracterize adult learning processes.The differences between andragogy and pedagogy are founded in four main understandings:
1. That adults, unlike children, need to know why they are learning about a certain topic;
2. learn from experience, not from memorization;
3. can and would benefit using problem-solving techniques for learning, and;
4. they learn best when the object of their study is of immediate value to them.


5. Activity theory (AT)

Activity theory is a psychological theory developed over the course of some 70 years in the Soviet Union. It is concerned with understanding the relation between consciousness and activity and has labored to provide a framework in which a meaningful unity between the two can be conceived. Activity theory puts an emphasis on artefacts as crucial mediators of human experience (Nardi 1996).


6. Cognitive distance (CD)

To the extent that people have constructed their cognition along different life paths, their perceptions, interpretations and evaluation of the world will differ. For learning and innovation this yields both a problem and an opportunity. The problem is that people understand each other more or less imperfectly, which hinders collaboration. The opportunity is that such difference of understanding is a source of learning and innovation (Nooteboom, 2009). 




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